Spontaneous massive hemopneumothorax: report of three cases

Case Study

Abstract

Spontaneous hemopneumothorax is a rare condition and may be a life-threatening condition that needs prompt diagnosis and urgent intervention. In this study, we reported three male cases of spontaneous hemopneumothorax, two cases presented with chest pain and one with epigastric pain. All cases were successfully treated by early surgical intervention. Total blood drainage was ranged from 1400 to 2000 mL. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed successfully in two cases, however, one case was transferred to urgent thoracotomy due to excessive blood clotting in the pleura cavity and continuous bleeding. Leukocytosis was observed in two cases, mostly due to pneumonia or sepsis. The bleeding point was identified in all cases, however, the air leak area could not be identified in two cases. Length of hospital stay after admission was ranged from five to seven days. We recommend that video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery should be considered as a first choice due to its effectiveness in reducing postoperative complications and facilitating rapid recovery.

Graphical abstract

Type B hepatic encephalopathy due to a congenital superior mesenteric-caval shunt: clinical scenario and therapeutic approach

Case Study

Abstract

Type B Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) due to a congenital extra-hepatic porto-systemic shunt is an extremely rare condition. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman, with recurrent episodes of confusion and neuropsychiatric symptoms, who had an elevated serum ammonia level and a superior mesenteric-caval shunt documented on abdominal computed topography (CT) scan. There was no evidence of cirrhosis or portal hypertension. A diagnosis of non-cirrhotic, non-portal hypertension hepatic encephalopathy was made after excluding other causes of confusion and cognitive impairment. The patient was successfully treated by radiologically guided endovascular shunt closure and during 9 months follow up, her neuropsychiatric symptoms did not recur and repeated serum ammonia level results were normal.

Graphical abstract

Extrapulmonary Intrapleural Hydatid Disease- A Case Report

Case Study

Abstract

Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. It mostly involves liver and lungs whereas the unusual sites are spleen, kidney, peritoneal cavity, skin, muscles, heart, brain, vertebral column, ovaries, pancreas, gallbladder, thyroid gland, breast, and bones.  Herein, we describe a unique case of intrapleural hydatid cyst which was solely confined to the pleural space without involvement of lung parenchyma and other associated structures. Despite the fact that Pakistan is an endemic country for hydatid disease, we could not identify any single documented case of intrapleural hydatid disease from Pakistan. The purpose of our case report is to promote awareness among fellow healthcare professionals about this rare variant of hydatid disease and to prevent any missed diagnosis and life-threatening complications. Hence, once the diagnosis was established, we performed a right-sided thoracotomy. Intraoperatively, the lung was collapsed due to the pressure effects of hydatid cysts. The hydatid cysts were evacuated completely from the pleural cavity and postoperatively the patient had an uneventful recovery and remained asymptomatic during all the follow-up visits. Conclusively, the hydatid disease may involve unusual sites such as the pleural space. A strong clinical suspicion, supportive radiological findings, and positive serological evidence play a critical role in the establishment of the diagnosis.

Graphical abstract

Filters