Phytochemical compounds of Morus alba as anti-aging agent towards in silico binding to matrix metalloproteinase proteins

Original Research

Abstract

Skin aging is a natural phenomenon which is related to progressive loss of skin structural integrity and physiological function and affects aesthetics which has been of highly interest. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 is one of the potential approaches for anti-aging treatment as these targets are involved in molecular pathology to skin aging process from sunlight. The aim of the study was to investigate the binding affinity of 9 phytochemical compounds extracted from Morus alba Moraceae into the MMP enzymes leading to potential anti-aging activity by using in silico approaches including molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. All the compounds showed binding abilities into the targets. In particular, mulberrofuran H obtained the best docking results on the three MMPs. Molecular dynamics simulations of the complex of  mulberrofuran H and MMP-9 showed that this complex was stable. Combination of molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations results, there was an important hydrophobic interaction between mulberrofuran H and His401 at the active site of the MMP-9, which determined the MMP-9 inhibitory potential of mulberrofuran H. The ligand mulberrofuran H was also stabilized into the MMP-9 protein by hydrogen bonds with Pro421 with the high occupancy of 77.67%. These results demonstrated the good binding of mulberrofuran H on the protein MMP-9 which highlighted its anti-aging potency.

Graphical abstract

Synthesis, in vitro Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity Evaluation and Docking Investigation of Some Aromatic Chalcones

Original Research

Abstract

In this study, a total of twenty chalcones were synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and evaluated for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities using Ellman’s method. Molecular docking studies on acetylcholinesterase were performed to elucidate the interactions between these chalcone derivatives and acetylcholinesterase active site at the molecular level. From the series, six compounds (S1-5 and S17) exhibited strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities with IC50 values below 100 µM compared to the parent unsubstituted chalcone. Compound S17 (4’-amino-2-chlorochalcone) showed the strongest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in the investigated group with IC50 value of 36.10 µM. Molecular modeling studies were consistent with the results of in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, and chalcone S17 could be considered as a potential lead compound for the development of new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

Graphical abstract

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